Juha Meriläinen 14
„Whose Dollar, His Religion.“ The WCC, the LWF and the Reconstruction of European Protestantism in the Early Cold War years, 1945–1948
After the Second World War theWorld Council of Churches developed a program of reconstruction aid for member churches. This took place in the context of the beginning of the Cold War, when the reconstruction program of the Marshall Plan aimed to limit the influ-ence of the Soviet Union in Europe. The article discusses the aims of the program of the WCC and the role of the Finnish Lutheran Church in its implementation.
WCC, Cold War, Second World War, Truman, Finnish Lutheran Church, LWF
Ondřej Matějka 25
A generation? A school? A fraternity? An army? Understanding the roots of Josef Lukl Homádka´s influence in the Czech Protestant milieu 1920–1948
When in the 1920s Josef L. Hromádka started as a teacher of theology at the newly founded Hus Faculty in Prague, he quickly gained influence on the students because of his personal charisma. This social capital is of key importance for the understanding of the rise of his authority within the Evangelical Church of the Czech Brethren as well as of the diminution of the Lutheran tradition in this church, as it was dependent on the older generation of pastors.
Josef L. Hromádka, Evangelical Church of the Czech Brethren, Hus Faculty
Pavel Filipi 39
Das Weltpolitische Dreieck in der Sicht Josef Lukl Hromádkas
This study examines how J. L. Hromádka in his publications after the Second World War transformed the concept of a bipolar world of West and East into a tripolor, as he stressed increasingly the significance of China as the third player on the scene of world politics. Subsequently Hromádka analyzed the main conflict in world politics as between revolution and counterrevolution.
J. L. Hromádka – Cold War – China – WCC
Jiří Piškula 45
Zwischen Kirche und Staat. Spuren von Josef Lukl Hromádka in tschechischen Staatsarchiven
Josef L. Hromádka left many traces in the archives of the former communist regime. One of them concerns a rather critical, unknown statement of the Association of Protestant Churches about the Communist coup d’état from1948.Another trace concerns the system of financial benefits used by the communist authorities to motivate church representatives to a cooperative attitude.
Josef L. Hromádka´ – Communist Coup d’état – Communist Church Politics – Evangelical Church of the Czech Brethren
Peter Morée 53
A Broken Man? Josef L. Hromádka in 1968 and 1969
This articles examines documents from 1968 and 1969, which reflect the development in opinion and standpoint on the Prague Spring, communism and the Soviet Union of the Czech protestant theologian and founder of the Christian Peace Conference Josef L. Hromádka (1889–1969). Often it is suggested that he died as a disillusioned man because of the Sovietled invasion into his country of August 1968. The conclusion of the article is that Hromádka did not give up his faith in the socialist vision, but till his death he stressed his commitment to a better world based on the communist idea.
Josef Lukl Hromádka – Prague Spring – Christian Peace Conference
Cornelia von Ruthendorf-Przewoski 68
Die Kirchen in der DDR und die neue sozialistische Verfassung von 1968
The new constitution of the German Democratic Republic, which was adopted in 1968, aimed to consolidate the position of the communist regime in this country. Also the churches had to play a role in this respect. The constitution brought a reset in the relation between church and state,which by many protestants was felt as a sharp contrast to the situation in Czechoslovakia of before August 1968. This study discusses the reactions to the new constitution in and the consequences of it for the East German Evangelical Church.
GDR – Church Politics – German Evangelical Church 1968
Klaus Fitschen 90
Von der Ostdenkschrift zu den Ostverträgen: Diskuse in der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland über die Entspannungspolitik filli Brandts
This study analyses the reactions of West German protestants on the new policy of the West German chancellor Willy Brandt of the late 1960s, to sign treaties with Eastern European countries (primarily Poland), which included a recognition of the political situation after the Second World War. A part of the protestants in Western Germany supported this Ostpolitik, another part expressed its hesitations
Willy Brandt – Ostpolitik – Evangelische Kirche Deutschlands – Cold War – Ludwig Raiser
András Korányi 101
Zwei Herren dienen? Auf Wegen der Unsicherheit vor und nach 1968 in Ungarn
This study examines the relations between the churches and the communist regime in Hungary in the years before and after 1968. Attention is given to the so-called theology of diaconia, which represented a theological answer and acceptance of the situation of the churches under the Kádár-regime.
Kádár – Hungarian Lutheran Church – Hungarian Reformed Church – Theology of Diaconia – Zoltán Káldy
Laurens Hogebrink 110
The Ecumenical Movement and the Cold War. Lessons and Legacy
This paper presents findings of a series of seminars about how churches and the ecumenical movement deal with the past of the Cold War. It focuses on the mechanisms which determined the attitudes in the ecumenical movement during the Cold War and formulates Lessons which canbelearned for churches in both Eastand West. It also examines the legacy of this recent past, with a focus on the post Cold War security debate in Europe as presented by an Open Letter about European security by a large group of former dissidents from Central and Eastern Europe of 2009. Finally, it discusses possible approaches to assess issues of the ecumenical movement and the Cold War.
Cold War – Ecumenical Movement – Churches 1945–1990 –WCC – Dissidents
Werner-Christoph Schmauch 134
A homo politicus of Christian Background. Sketsches of a 70-year political autobiography on two continents
In this biographical contribution Werner-Christoph Schmauch discusses his engagement in church, peace movement and political life since the Second World War.
Werner-Christoph Schmauch – Cold War – peace movement – Christian Peace Conference – Josef L. Hromádka